Elementos Narrativos que Sirven para Generar Convergencias e Inteligibilidad en Narrativas Transmediáticas o Narrativas Interactivas Lineales.

Contenido del artículo principal

Jorge Ignacio Mora Fernández
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0539-4005

Resumen

El término transmedia fue acuñado por Marsha Kinder (1991) para referirse a la intertextualidad entre películas, series de televisión de dibujos y los juguetes para niños y jóvenes preadolescentes. En dicha publicación participaba Henry Jenkins, quien posteriormente profundizó en el término de transmedia en Media Convergence (2006) y posteriormente en narrativa transmedia. La presente investigación analiza el uso de los elementos narrativos y de las características de los medios de comunicación utilizados para generar narrativas transmedia para poder utilizarlas en productos comunicativos independientes. Este artículo se concentra en el análisis transmedia del universo narrativo generado por los cómics, películas, web, videos de fans y videojuegos de Batman. El objetivo es el estudio de los elementos narrativos de las acciones, personajes, espacios y tiempos utilizados para generar convergencia e inteligibilidad comunicativas transmedia que retroalimentan coherentemente el universo de Batman, sus narrativas interactivas lineales y circulares. De esta forma es posible aplicar dichas técnicas narrativas transmedia a la construcción de productos comunicativos independientes y de edutainment.


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Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
Mora Fernández, J. (2017). Elementos Narrativos que Sirven para Generar Convergencias e Inteligibilidad en Narrativas Transmediáticas o Narrativas Interactivas Lineales. Revista ICONO14 Revista Científica De Comunicación Y Tecnologías Emergentes, 15(1), 186-210. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v15i1.1032
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MONOGRÁFICO
Biografía del autor

Jorge Ignacio Mora Fernández, - Researcher Affiliated at Arthur C. Clarke Center for Human Imagination, UCSD, University of California San Diego. http://imagination.ucsd.edu/index.html#people - Co- Director of the Research Group CICNETART I+D+C, www.cicnetart.org - Co- Director of the Research Group NEUROSYNAPSIS, www.neurosynapsis.org

Jorge Mora, Ph.D. is an interdisciplinary researcher in the arenas of interactive media, transmedia, and health & communications, as well as author and director originally from Spain. He holds a Ph.D. Cum Laude in Techniques and Processes of Creating Images: Social and Aesthetics Applications, by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in collaboration with UCSD within the EAP Program at the CRCA and Visual Arts Department; a
M.F.A. in Interactive Media, School of Cinematic Arts, University of Southern California, a B.A. in Audiovisual Communications and a B.A. in Cultural and Social Anthropology.

He is founder & co-director of the Interdisciplinary Research Groups CICNETART in Society+ Communication+ Health +Art+ Technology and the Laboratory of Emergent Media Converges, http://www.cicnetart.org/eng/ , and the NEUROSYNAPSIS, http://www.neurosynapsis.org/index.php?l=eng,  funded as part of the Prometheus Research Project by the Secretary of Innovation, Science, Research, Technology and Higher Education from Ecuador & the DIUC, Direction of Research Universidad de Cuenca. He did is also founder of the Visual Arts Festival VideoBabel, http://festivalvideobabel.org/, supported by the UNESCO, UCM, the Fulbright Commission, the Françoise Alliance, MAEC-AECID, Spanish Agency & Ministry of Cooperation, etc.

He is also a member of the Science Committee of the JCR Journal Comunicar, www.revistacomunicar.com, and reviewer of the Journal Games & Culture, http://gac.sagepub.com. He is member of the ICOM, Unesco International Council of Museums, ICA, International Communication Association, and a Researcher Associate and Collaborator of the USC Center on Public Diplomacy and MacArthur Foundation's Project  "Virtual Worlds and the Public Good", the LatinAmerican Group of Transmedia Narratives, http://catedratransmedia.com.ar/, Argentina, the Laboratory of Digital Culture-Research Group Museum I+D+C http://www.ucm.es/centros/webs/gi5068/, Spain, the Labyrinth Project, http://dornsife.usc.edu/labyrinth/laby.html, founded at USC, USA, and the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, http://lchc.ucsd.edu/home, San Diego, between others.

Jorge Mora’s Publications (Articles published in Scientific Journals, Chapters and Book)

Mora, Jorge. (2015). Article. Interactive Immersive Narratives Techniques Applied for Edutainment in Interactive Health Projects: Analysis of Two USC's Labyrinth Projects. USA. HCI, Human Computer Interface, Los Angeles Conference. LNCS, Lecture Notes on Computer Sciences, Springer.

Mora, Jorge. (2014). Book Chapter. Narrative Elements that Serve to Generate Convergences and Inteligibility in Transmedia Narratives or Interactive Linear Narratives. Ecuador. Actas Congreso IV Encuentro Iberoamericano de Narrativas Audiovisuales y del II Congreso Internacional de la Red Iberoamericana e Narrativas Audiovisuales (Red INAV), CIESPAL, Quito, Ecuador.

Mora, Jorge (2013) Book Chapter. Artechnology in Interactive Cinema: Some Categories, Interfaces, Narrative Structures, Emotions and Researchs. 

Mora, Jorge (2012) The Analysis of Interactive Media and Digital Culture - Hypermedia Literacy in Peru and Bolivia. Comunicar, no 39, v. XX, 2012, Revista Científica de Educomunicación; Madrid, Spain

Mora, Jorge. (2010). Book. The Hypermedia Interface: The Paradigm of the Interactive Communication. Models Implementing Young Adults in Multicultural Digital Media (Videogames, Interactive Cinema, Museums, Augmented Reality, Mobiles and Webs)   Datautor, SGAE. Madrid, Spain. 

Mora, Jorge (2008).  Article. “Multicultural Videos: An Interactive Online Museum Based on an International Artistic Video Database.” Workshop Communicability MS’08: Communicability Design and Evaluation in Cultural and Ecological Multimedia Systems. Vancouver, BC, 27-31 October 2008. 

Projects & Exhibitions 

 

Citas

Anderson Steve (2011). Technologies of History. Lebanon. Dartmouth College Press.

Bruni, E., Baceviciute, S. (2013). Narrative Intelligentibility and Closure in Interactive Systems. Heidelberg. En Koenitz, H. et al. (eds.) ICIDS 2013. LNCS, vol. 8230, pp.13-15, 18, 22. Springer, Heidelberg.

Beatty, et all (2008). Batman Begins. Barcelona. Planeta DeaGoscini.

Boon, Ed y Grinsfelder, Dean (2013). Injustice. Gods Among Us. Los Angeles. Warner Bros Interactive Enterntainment.

Dixon, C; Nolan, G. y Barreto, E. (1993). Vengeance of Bane en The KnightFall series. New York. D.C. Comics Inc.

Grant, A. y Dixon, C. (1996). Batman Contagion. New York. D.C. Comics Inc.

Hill, Sefton y Dini, Paul (2009). Batman Arkham Archives. Warner Bros Interactive Enterntainment.

Hurup Bevense, S., Schoenau-Fog, H. (2013). Conceptualizing Productive Interactivity in Emergent Narratives.

Heidelberg. En Koenitz, H. et al. (eds.) ICIDS 2013. LNCS, vol. 8230, pp. 61, 62. Springer, Heidelberg.

Jenkins, Henry (2006). Convergence Culture. New York. New York University Press.

Jenkins, Henry (2007). http://henryjenkins.org/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html (consulta 1-9-2014)

Jenkins, Henry (2011). http://henryjenkins.org/2011/08/defining_transmedia_further_re.html (consulta 1-9-2014)

Jenkins, Henry (2013). http://henryjenkins.org/2013/02/what-transmedia-producers-need-to-know-about-comics-an-interview-with-tyler-weaver-part-two.html (consulta 1-9-2014)

Loeb, J. y Sale, T. (1996). The Long Halloween. New York. D.C. Comics Inc.

Kinder, Marsha, et al (2014). Transmedia Frictions: The Digital, the Arts, and the Humanities. Oakland. University of California Press.

Mateas, M., Murray, J.: A Preliminary Poetics for Interactive Drama and Games, and From Game-Story to Cyberdrama. In Wardrip-Fruin N., Harrigan P. (eds.) First Person: New Media as Story, Performance and Game. p. 2-33. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)

Manovich, Lev (2005). Soft Cinema. Cambridge. M.I.T. Press.

Manovich, Lev (2001). The Language of New Media. Cambridge. M.I.T. Press.

Mazzucchelli, D. y Miller, F. (1986). Batman Year One. New York. D.C. Comics Inc.

Moore, A. y Bolland, B. (1988). The Killing Joke. New York. D.C. Comics Inc.

Mora, Jorge. (2013). Artecnología en cine interactivo: algunas categorías, interfaces, estructuras narrativas, emociones e investigaciones. En ArTecnologia. Arte, Tecnologia e linguagens Midiáticas. Rio de Janeiro. Buqui.

Moreno Sánchez, Isidro (2002). Musas y Nuevas Tecnologías: El relato hipermedia. Barcelona. Paidós Comunicación.

Murray, J. (2012): Inventing The Medium. Principles of Interaction, Design as a Cultural Practice. Cambridge, The MIT Press.

Nolan, Christopher. (2005). Batman Begins. USA. Warner Bros Inc.

Nolan, Christopher. (2009). The Dark Knight. USA. Warner Bros Inc.

Nolan, Christopher. (2012). The Dark Knight Rises. USA. Warner Bros Inc.

Oliva, Jay. (2012). Batman: The Dark Knight Returns. USA. DC Universe Animated Original Movies.

O´neil, D. y Giordano, D. (1989). The Man Who Falls in Secrets Origins. New York. DC Comics Inc.

O´neil, D. y Breyfogle, N. (1992). Birth of the Demon. New York. DC Comics Inc.

O´neil, D; Jordan, B. Y Gorfinkel (1999). No Man´s Land. New York. DC Comics Inc.
Ryan, Marie-Laure. Narrative as Virtual Reality.Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Scolari, Carlos (2013). Narrativas transmedia: cuando todos los medios cuentan. Barcelona. Deusto.

Truesdale, J., et al. (2013). Suitability of Modelling Context for Use within Emergent Narrative. Heidelberg. En Koenitz, H. et al. (eds.) ICIDS 2013. LNCS, vol. 8230, p. 65. Springer.

Venegas, Cristina (2010). Digital Dilemmas, The State, the Individual, and Digital Media in Cuba. New Brunswick. Rutgers University Press.

Warner Bros Inc. (2008) http://www.whysoserious.com, www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYpaL5CmDTM (consultado: 1-9-2014)

Weaver, Tyler (2012). Comics for Film, Games, and Animation: Using Comics to Construct Your Transmedia Storyworld. Burlington. Focal Press.