Identidad, estabilidad, amenazas híbridas y desinformación

Contenido del artículo principal

Jane Freedman
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0011-6164
Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8037-7796
Velomahanina Tahinjanahary Razakamaharavo
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0051-9190

Resumen

El artículo examina la relevancia de los análisis interseccionales y de género para comprender mejor las amenazas híbridas, en particular aquellas que se dirigen cada vez más a entornos civiles. En primer lugar se presentan los conceptos más relevantes, que incluyen: amenazas híbridas y guerra, resiliencia, desinformación, agencia civil e interseccionalidad como método. A partir de estos, se discute cómo se utiliza la desinformación para desestabilizar sociedades atacando directamente los espacios civiles e intentando fomentar la polarización, el malestar o directamente el conflicto. A continuación, se discute cómo los conceptos de desinformación y agencia civil se pueden comprender a través de análisis interseccionales y de género, cuando se abordan contextos civiles complejos al examinar cómo se ha empleado el género (y la raza) para intentar fomentar la desestabilización. Las conclusiones proponen algunas breves reflexiones sobre el papel del género y los enfoques interseccionales en la comprensión de las amenazas híbridas y la guerra, no solo en Europa sino también en otras partes del mundo.

Descargas

Descargar datos aún no está disponible.
 
 

Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
Freedman, J., Hoogensen Gjørv, G., & Tahinjanahary Razakamaharavo, V. (2021). Identidad, estabilidad, amenazas híbridas y desinformación. Revista ICONO 14. Revista Científica De Comunicación Y Tecnologías Emergentes, 19(1), 38-69. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v19i1.1618
Sección
MONOGRÁFICO
Biografía del autor

Jane Freedman, Université de Paris, GTM-CRESPPA,

Profesora en la Universidad de París 8. Directora de Cresppa-GTM. Directora Adjunta de Cresppa.

Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv, UiT The Arctic University of Norway

Profesora de Estudios Críticos sobre Paz y Conflicto, especializado en Estudios de Seguridad en Relaciones Internacionales en la Universidad de Tromsø - Universidad Ártica de Noruega

Velomahanina Tahinjanahary Razakamaharavo, Université Catholique de Louvain

Velomahanina Tahinjanahary Razakamaharavo, de Antananarivo (Madagascar) es doctora en “Análisis de conflictos internacionales” de la Universidad de Kent, Escuela de Estudios Internacionales de Bruselas. Actualmente es Colaboradora Científica en UCLouvain en Bélgica. Ha escrito su tesis doctoral sobre la dinámica de la recurrencia de conflictos en Madagascar. Sus intereses incluyen la transformación de conflictos y la construcción de la paz, el género en las operaciones de apoyo a la paz y las implicaciones de la inteligencia artificial en los campos de la paz y la seguridad.

Citas

Aganze, E., & Kusinza, R. (2020). The Current State of Fake News in the DR Congo and Socials Impacts. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology.

Ake, Claude. 1975. “A Definition of Political Stability.” Comparative Politics 7 (2): 271–83.

Baade, B. (2018). “Fake News and International Law”. European Journal of International Law, 29(4), 1357-1376

Baines E and Paddon E (2012) ‘This is how we survived’: Civilian agency andhumanitarian protection. Security Dialogue 43(3): 231–247.

Bajarūnas, E. (2020). Addressing Hybrid Threats: Priorities for the EU in 2020 and Beyond. European View, 1781685820912041.

Bartkowski, M. (2015). Nonviolent civilian defense to counter Russian hybrid warfare. John Hopkins University. Oţujak.

Batyuk, V. I. (2017). The US concept and practice of hybrid warfare. Strategic Analysis, 41(5), 464-477.

BBC News (2017). “Reality Check: Is Malmo the ‘rape capital’ of Europe?” BBC News: Politics. 24 february 2017. Accessible at: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-39056786

Beccaro, A. (2018). Modern irregular warfare: The ISIS case study. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 29(2), 207-228.

Bergman, H. (2018): “White Men’s Fear of Women: Anti-Feminism and the Rise of the Alt-Right”. The Examined Life Lab, 31 March 2018.

Brânda, O. E., & Sauliuc, A. L. (2020, June). Hybrid Threats on NATO’s Eastern Flank-A Comparative Analysis. In International conference Knowledge-Based Organization (Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 33-41). Sciendo.

Bila, A. (2019). “Countering Islamophobia in France”. In Countering Islamophobiain Europe (pp. 213-251). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Bilgic, Ali; Hoogensen Gjørv, G and C. Wilcock. (2019). “Trust and Distrust in the Politics of Security: An Untrustworthy Immigrant in a Trusting Nordic Community” Journal of Political Psychology. 40(6): 1283-1296.

Burgers, T., & Romaniuk, S. (2016). Hybrid Warfare in the South China Sea: The United States’ Little Grey (Un) Men. The Diplomat.

Carastathis, A. (2014), ‘The Concept of Intersectionality in Feminist Theory.’ Philosophy Compass, 9(5), 304-14.

Carden, James (2017) “Russia and America’s Dangerous Dance,” The National Interest. Retrieved 6 December 2020. Available: http://nationalinterest.org/feature/russia-americas-dangerous-dance-11798

Dunn Cavelty, M., Kaufmann, M., & Søby Kristensen, K. (2015). Resilience and (in)security: Practices, subjects, temporalities. Security Dialogue, 46(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010614559637

Chandler, D. (2012). “Resilience and human security: The post-interventionist paradigm.” Security Dialogue 43(3): 213-229

Chandler, D. (2014). “Beyond neoliberalism: resilience, the new art of governing complexity.” Resilience: International Policies, Practices and Discourses 2(1): 47-63. Clark-Kazak 2014

Choo, K.-K. R. (2011). “The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions.” Computers & Security 30(8): 719-731.

Coaston, Jane. 2019. “The Intersectionality Wars.” Vox, 2019.

Cohen, O., A. Goldberg, M. Lahad and L. Ahronson-Daniel (2016). “Building resilience: The relationship between information provided by municipal authorities during emergency stituations and community resilience.” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 121: 119-125

Considine, L. (2015). “’Back to Rough Ground!’ A Grammatical Approach to Trust and International Relations.” Millennium - Journal of International Studies 44(1): 109-127.

Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stan. L. Rev., 43, 1241.

Cullen, P. J., & Reichborn-Kjennerud, E. (2017). MCDC countering hybrid warfare project: Understanding hybrid warfare. A Multinational Capability Development Campaign project, London.

Derakhshan, H., & Wardle, C. (2017). Information disorder: definitions. AA. VV., Understanding and addressing the disinformation ecosystem, 5-12.

Eddy, Melissa (2017). “Bild Apologizes for False Article on Sexual Assaults in Frankfurt by Migrants.” The New York Times. 16 february 2017. Accessible at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/16/world/europe/bild-fake-story.html

Egelhofer, J. L. and S. Lecheler (2019). “Fake news as a two-dimensional phenomenon: a framework and research agenda.” Annals of the International Communication Association 43(2): 97-116.

EuropeAid (2016). “Building Resilience: The EU’s approach.” EU FACTSHEET: Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Development and Cooperation.

European Commission (2017). Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council: A Strategic Approach to Resilience in the EU’s external action. High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy: European Union.

Fallis, D. (2014). The Varieties of Disinformation. The Philosophy of Information Quality. L. Floridi and P. Illari. New York, Springer.

Fearon, James D. 1994. “Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes.” The American Political Science Review 88(3): 577–92.

Fielitz, Maik and Nik Thurston (eds). Post-Digital Cultures of the Far Right: Online Actions and Offline Consequences in Europe and the US. Transcript Verlag, Beilefeld

Filipec, O. (2019). Hybrid Warfare: Between Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism1. Central European Journal of Politics, 5(2), 52-70.

Flore, M., A. Balahur, A. Podavini and M. Verile (2019). Understanding Citizen’s Vulnerabilities to Disinformation and Data-Driven Propaganda. JRC Technical Reports. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, European Union.

Froio, C. (2019). Nosotros y los otros: la alteridad en los sitios web de la extrema derecha en Francia. DeSignis, (31), 241-270.

Fox, A. C., & Rossow, A. J. (2017). Making Sense of Russian Hybrid Warfare: A Brief Assessment of the Russo-Ukrainian War. Institute of Land Warfare, Association of the United States Army.

Gelfert, A. 2018. “Fake News: A Definition.” Informal Logic 38(1): 84–117.

Ghaffari, H (2019). “The necessity of ‘effective reaction’ against U.S. hybrid war” Tehran Times. Retrieved 6 December 2020. Available: https://www.tehrantimes. com/news/437255/The-necessity-of-effective-reaction-against-U-S-hybrid-war.

Giannopoulos, G, H Smith, and M Theocharidou. 2020. The Landscape of Hybrid Threats : A Conceptual Model. European Commission, Ispra. JRC117280.

Giegerich, B. (2016). Hybrid Warfare and the Changing Character of Conflict. Connections, 15(2), 65-72.

Gopaldas, R. (2019). Digital Dictatorship versus Digital Democracy in Africa.

Haynie, J. (2020). Putin’s Hybrid Wars: A Comparative Analysis of Russian Incursions into Georgia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, and Syria (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University).

Heffington, Colton. 2017. “Marked Targets: Coercive Diplomacy and Domestic Terrorism.” Journal of Global Security Studies 2(2): 123–36.

Herrero-diz, P,Pérez-escolar M, and Juan F Plaza Sánchez. 2020. “Gender Disinformation : Analysing Hoaxes on Maldito Feminismo.” Icono 14 18(2): 188–215. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v18i2.1509.

Hoffman, Frank G. 2007. “Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Arlington, VA.

Hoffman, Frank G. 2018. “Examining Complex Forms of Conflict: Gray Zone and Hybrid Challenges.” Prism 7(4): 30–47.

Hoogensen, G. and Stuvøy, K. 2006. Gender, Human Security and Resistance. Security Dialogue 37(2): 207-228.

Hoogensen Gjørv, G. 2017. “Human Security” in Security Studies: An Introduction. Paul Williams and Matt MacDonald (eds). London: Routledge.

Hoogensen Gjørv, G. 2020. “Coronavirus, invisible threats and preparing for resilience” NATO Review. Available at: https://www.nato.int/docu/review/articles/2020/05/20/coronavirus-invisible-threats-and-preparing-forresilience/index.html?fbclid=IwAR3s3TTYuY3CdigsdS8me1vSh5lKCHSlqkQKLo
nSdprcIPuZkU-2aWwVTqA

Hoogensen Gjørv, G. and Ali Bilgic (forthcoming 2021) Positive Security. London: Routledge.

Horton, A. (2020). “After Truth: how ordinary people are ‘radicalised’ by fake news.” The Guardian Retrieved 18 May 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2020/mar/19/after-truth-hbo-fake-news-pizzagatedocumentary https://mathias-nilges.com/student-projects-the-new-culturewars/2018/4/1/white-mens-fear-of-women-anti-feminism-and-the-rise-ofthe-Alt-Right

Ibrahim, A. M., Adamu, M. A., & Lawan, A. K. Fake News of Fat Nuisance? Theorising Fale News in a Nigerian Context in relation to Democratic Process. Asian Journal of Applied Communication e-ISSN, 2682, 7506.

Jakub, J. (2016). The Lisa Case: STRATCOM Lessons for European states (No. 11). Security Policy Working Paper.

Jose, B. and P. A. Medie (2015). “Understanding Why and How Civilians Resort to Self-Protection in Armed Conflict.” International Studies Review 17(4): 515-535.

Juhász, A., and Szicherle, P. (2017). The political effects of migration-related fake news, disinformation and conspiracy theories in Europe. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Political Capital, Budapest.

Kaminski, D. (2019). « Hijab de course et running à l’échalote ». La Revue Nouvelle, (3), 24-25

la Cour, C. (2020). « Theorising digital disinformation in international relations ». International Politics, 1-20.

Lanoszka, A. (2016). “Russian hybrid warfare and extended deterrence in eastern Europe.” International Affairs 92(1): 175-195.

Lindley-French, J (2015). NATO: Countering Strategic Maskirovka. Calgary: Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute.

Mac Ginty R (2010). Hybrid peace: The interaction between top-down and bottomup peace. Security Dialogue 41(4): 391–412. DOI: 10.1177/0967010610374312.

Major, C. and C. Mölling (2015). “A Hybrid Security Policy for Europe: Resilience, Deterrence, and Defence as Leitmotifs.” Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik 22(April 2015): 1-4.

Marwick, A., and Lewis, R. (2017). Media manipulation and disinformation online. New York: Data & Society Research Institute.

Mattheis, A. Shieldmaidens of Whiteness: (Alt) Maternalism and Women Recruiting
for the Far/Alt-Right. Journal for Deradicalization, (17), 128-162.

May, R., and Feldman, M. (2019). Understanding the Alt-Right: Ideologues, ‘Lulz’ and Hiding in Plain Sight. In Fielitz, Maik and Nik Thurston (eds). Post-Digital Cultures of the Far Right: Online Actions and Offline Consequences in Europe and the US. Transcript Verlag, Beilefeld: 25-26.

McGuinness, D (2016). “Russia steps into Berlin ‘rape’ storm claiming German coverup” BBC News: Inside Europe Blog. 27 January 2016. Accessible at: https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-eu-35413134

Meerow, S., J. P. Newell and M. Stults (2016). “Defining urban resilience: A review.”Landscape and Urban Planning 147(March): 38-49.

Meister, S. (2016). “The “Lisa case”: Germany as a target of Russian disinformation”, Nato Review, 25 July 2016.

Mohanty, Satya P. 2018. “Social Justice and Culture: On Identity, Intersectionality, and Epistemic Privilege.” In Handbook on Global Social Justice, edited by Gary Craig, 418–27. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Inc.

Mumford, A. (2016). The Role of Counter Terrorism in Hybrid Warfare. CEO-DAT, November.

Muradov, I. (2019). The donbas conflict as a form of Hybrid Warfare: A Neoclassical Realist Analysis (Doctoral dissertation, Middle East Technical University).

NATO (2020). “Resilience and Article 3” Topics. Accessible at: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_132722.htm?selectedLocale=uk

Ndlela, M. N. (2020). Social Media Algorithms, Bots and Elections in Africa. In Social Media and Elections in Africa, Volume 1 (pp. 13-37). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. O’Loughlin 2015

Raska, M. (2015). “Hybrid Warfare with Chinese Characteristics”. RSIS Commentary. No.262.
S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Techological University

Raţiu, A., & Munteanu, A. (2018). Hybrid warfare and the Russian Federation informational strategy to influence civilian population in Ukraine. Land forces academy review, 23(3), 192-200.

Reichborn-Kjennerud, E, and P Cullen. 2016. “What Is Hybrid Warfare ?” Policy Brief, no. 1. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI).

Romanets, M. (2017). Virtual warfare: Masculinity, sexuality, and propaganda in the Russo-Ukrainian war. East/West: Journal of Ukrainian Studies, 4(1), 159-177.

Roloff, R., & Dunay, P. (2018). The Age of Post-Truth: State Influence and Strategic Communication–Contemporary Security Challenges on Europe’s Eastern Flank. Connections: The Quarterly Journal, 17(2), 19-38.

Sablina, L. (2019). “We Should Stop the Islamisation of Europe!”: Islamophobia and Right-Wing Radicalism of the Russian-Speaking Internet Users in Germany. Nationalities Papers, 1-14. doi:10.1017/nps.2019.76

Sahin, K. (2017). “Germany Confronts Russian Hybrid Warfare.” Retrieved 18 May 2020, from https://carnegieeurope.eu/2017/07/26/germany-confrontsrussian-hybrid-warfare-pub-72636

Schmelk; C. (2017). « Plongée en fachosphère ». Médium, 52-53(3-4), 199-212. https://doi.org/10.3917/mediu.052.0199

Shu, K., Mahudeswaran, D., Wang, S., Lee, D., & Liu, H. (2020). FakeNewsNet: A Data Repository with News Content, Social Context, and Spatiotemporal Information for Studying Fake News on Social Media. Big Data, 8(3), 171-188.

Sørensen, Heine and Nyemann, Dorthe Bach (2018). “Going Beyond Resilience: A revitalised approach to countering hybrid threats.” Strategic Analysis November 2018. Helsinki: Hybrid CoE.

Tierney, K. J. (2015). “Resilience and the neoliberal project: discourses, critiques, practices - And Katrina.” American Behavioural Scientist 59(10): 1327-1342.

Udupa, S. and Pohjonen, M (2019). “Introduction: Extreme Speech and Global Digital Media Cultures”,International Journal of Communication 13: 3019–3067. Veebel, 2020

Walker, Shaun. “‘Salutin’ Putin: Inside a Russian Troll House.” The Guardian, 2 Apr. 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/02/putin-kremlininside-russian-troll-house?C

Watts, T., & Biegon, R. Conceptualising Remote Warfare: The Past, Present, and
Future. Oxford Research Group.

Weisburd, A., Watts, C. and Berger, J. (2016), “Trolling for Trump: How Russia Is Trying to Destroy Our Democracy,” War on the Rocks, November 6, 2016, https://warontherocks.com/2016/11/trolling-for-trump-how-russia-istrying-to-destroy-our-democracy

Wither, James K. 2016. “Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes Making Sense of Hybrid Warfare.” Connections15(2): 73–87.

Yuval-Davis, N. (2011), Intersectionality and Feminist Politics, London: Sage Publications.

Zaliznyak, Y. (2016). Information security and Russian aggression: Ukraine–EU–NATO hybrid response to hybrid war. Rocznik Instytutu Europy ŚrodkowoWschodniej, 14(2), 23-42.

Zhurzhenko, T. (2014). A divided nation? Reconsidering the role of identity politics in the Ukraine crisis. Die Friedens-Warte, 249-267